Yokomasu Group

Manufacturing Plant
No. 8 & 9, Jalan Utara 2,
Kawasan Perusahaan Mergong,
Jalan Lencong Barat,
05050 Alor Setar,
Kedah, Malaysia.
H/P: +6012-3833138 (Albert)
H/P: +6012-5888316 (Mr. Tneoh)
Whatsapp: +6012-3833138
 
North Malaysia
No. 113, 115 & 117,
Jalan Kota Permai,
Taman Kota Permai,
14000 Bukit Mertajam,
Penang, Malaysia.
Fax: +604-5054007
H/P: +6012-3833138 (Albert)
 
South Malaysia
No. 48 & 50,
Jalan Kempas Indah 1/1,
Taman Kempas Indah,
81300 Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia.
H/P: +6012-3833138 (Albert)
Whatsapp: +6012-3833138

Battery Check and Claim Procedure

Claimed Battery Handing

Car battery claim handling procedure within warranty period

1) Making decision on car battery claim
  • Dealers are requested to determine claim offer immediately after customer made a claim offer.
  • See example case on next page and procedure on previous page.
  • Company determines case immediately after obtain claimed product from dealer.
2) Making claim report
  • Please fill in all required check topics.
3) Deliver claimed products to distribution company
  • Please return claimed product with claim form.
  • Claimed product will be finally returned to distribution company.

Battery Inspection and Handling

Battery Measurement

a. Measurement by Hydrometer

1. Specific gravity

Specific gravity 1.280 means there are 1.280 times of another solid more than water. The reaction between sulfuric acid and active material, results as sulfuric acid turning to lead sulfate, this leads to specific gravity drop. The specific gravity of electrolyte is measured by a suction-type hydrometer.

Hydrometer consists of a glass float inside a glass tube inside cylinder (glass-tube with a rubber-made grip) that has scale displayed. When using syringe to draw up the electrolyte, the calibrated scale on surface of hydrometer will show the specific gravity. The picture below shows the correct way to read measurement scale. Hold a liquid surface inside cylinder at the same level to eyes position, the reading on the float scale at the surface tension of the fluid is the specific gravity of the fluid.


2. State of charge of battery

Even though the state of charge of battery can be measured by the hydrometer but for more accuracy, the measurement has to be done when the electrolyte is reaching standard level and if the water is added, wait until it blends well with the electrolyte. When measure specific gravity, stand the cylinder up straight and amount of electrolyte to be suctioned should be enough for gravity meter (glass float) able to move up and down. Do not let the hydrometer (glass float) come to contact with a cylinder side. Periodically clean of inner side of the cylinder and hydrometer (glass float) with soap solution, oil and dirt can cause a measurement error.



Claim Determination Case Study


Examples Results of inspection Countermeasures
1. Discharged
  • When the specific gravity is less than 1.240, and the deviation is less than 0.04.
Frequent cases

Trouble of charging systems, lack of care for long period, when used under discharged condition, forgotten to turn off lights or closing the doors.
  • Charging system checkup fixing.
  • Recovery charging (Replace new one if not work)
2.Damage of battery cover and case
  • When caused by external shock.
Frequent cases

Hit by stones, over-tightening the cover, intrusion of small objects, such as stones and when the cover is left too loosen.
  • Replace new one.
  • Replace new one (Please do with cautions)
3.Damages on the grip
  • When the battery is not handled properly.
  • Replace new one
4.Damage on the terminal
  • When caused by external shock
Frequent cases

Over tightening to fasten the terminals, or hammering the terminals. Deformation caused by welding

Frequent cases

Short circuits, and proper contacts
  • Replace new one
  • Replace new one (If deformation is not severe repair is possible in some cases)
5.Impurities
  • When any objects which could damage the battery is added to the electrolyte.
Frequent cases

When any liquid which contains metal, such as iron, bronze, chlorine, ammonia, and oil.
  • Replace new one
6.Deformation of the battery case and cover
  • When caused by heat or over charging.
Frequent cases

Disorder of charging system

  • When caused fastening the clamps
Frequent cases

Over tightening the clamps; temperature rise.

 
  • Repair charging system replace new one.
  • Fasten clamps in correct way and replace new one
7. Over discharge
  • When the specific gravity is less than 1.100, and the sulfation is found on the plates.
Sulfation: a white stiff crust

Frequent cases

Battery is left discharged for long period or impurities. May occur when exposed to the air, at the leaked portion.
  • Replace new one
8. High specific gravity, shortage of filling
  • When forgotten to refill water, accidentally adding sulfuric acid or when problems happen with the charging system.
  • Recheck after adjust specific gravity level
9.Over charging
 
  • When the deviation of specific gravity of each cell is more than 0.04, and when the specific gravity of any specified cell is too low. (more than 0.04)
Frequent cases

Car alternator is broken, or overcharged due to problems with the changing device.
  • Adjust charging system
  • Replace new one.
10. Insufficient charging
  • When specific gravity is more than 1.240, but the engine won’t start. (It is likely found that the active material of the positive plate becomes soft, when opening the battery) (Expansion of positive grind plate, nor corrosion is not found)
Frequent cases

Taxi and commercial vehicles, not enough discharge.
  • Adjust charging system
  • Replace new one

General Troubles and Troubleshooting

a. General troubles, causes and troubleshooting

Most of broken-down troubles are results of improper usage in daily life and insufficient care. The table below contains visible general breakdown troubles with causes and how to solve.

Area Trouble Cause Trouble Shooting
 Electrolyte Low specific gravity in all cell Insufficient charging (charging system trouble, improper usage of car, traffic jam) Over discharge (overload, insufficient generator capacity), short due to overcharge. Charge Battery
Leakage (Bad cleaning, excessive water addition) Clean, adjust water level
Too low specific gravity only in certain cell Internal short-circuit, Insufficient water (instant type) Impurities (Excessive self-discharge)short due to overcharge Replace new battery or adjust specific gravity
Too high specific gravity Too much sulfuric acid added instead of water
Low liquid level
(overcharging, insufficient water addition)
Adjust specific gravity
Add water
Running out of liquid Overcharging, insufficient water addition, leakage due to turnover etc. Add water
Add liquid
Normal specific gravity but non-dischargeable Bad terminal connection, conductor broken-down, blowing out, starting system trouble, deep charge-discharge Clean up, Replace battery Check starting system
Battery case, Cover, Vent Plug Broken-down crack Leakage Stones, bad installation (too tight, or too loose), stones stuck in battery tray, bad covering, draining stuck, bad hold-down, explosion Replace or repair battery
Deformation Excessive heat up liquid due to excessive high electric current charging. Too high ambient temperature (high temperature emission from engine) over tight fastened clamps. Replace or adjust battery
Terminal Corrosion Electrolyte (sulfuric acid)
 

Leakage at penetration part of electrode pole of terminal.
Clean up, Adjust liquid level

Replace battery
Rupture Heat up due to external short-circuit, sparks, corrosion at contact surface, bad contact, excessive high current charging. Repair or replace battery
Broken-down Improper usage  

b. Check-points when charging and circumstances
     (in brief) (MF Calcium battery case)


Checkpoints Circumstances Causes (probable) Usable/Unusable
Voltage right after charging started (normal temperature) Terminal voltage 15.0V or higher Sulfation Precise inspection needed
Voltage at the 30th minute after charging (normal temperature) Terminal voltage 15.0V or lower Short-circuit
Sulfation
Unusable
Temperature of electrolyte and terminal during charging operation Significant increase Short-circuit, Sulfation(electrolyte)
Bad welding
(terminal)
Unusable
Gas generation at the end of charging operation Almost same in all cell O.K Usable
Slow in certain cell Short-circuit Unusable
Voltage at the end of charging operation (normal temperature) Terminal voltage 15.0V or more O.K Usable
Terminal voltage is below 15.0V or some cell does not perform gassing and showing low specific gravity (0.04 or more) Short-circuit, Impurities Unusable
Specific gravity at the end of charging operation (20ºC) 1.270 or higher O.K Usable
Difference of specific gravity in each cell is 0.04 or higher Short-circuit
A faulty liquid level
Unusable
Low specific gravity in certain cell (0.04 or higher) Leakage, flooding
Loss of electrolyte
Precise inspection required
  Short-circuit Unusable

During charging operation, voltage is normally 15V or higher when sufficient gas being adequately generated.

Specific gravity

Does it adequately rise?
If specific gravity does not approach 1.240 (200C) after being charged, it is probably caused by sulfation on electrode plate or short-circuit.

Battery storage and management

Battery Stock and Storage

Below is example of points that care should be taken.

1) Storage place

1. Keep in cool dry place where temperature change is low.
2. Do not place battery where flood may occur.
3. Prevent battery from rain and dewdrop, do not place under direct sunlight.
4. Keep away from toxic gas and liquid drops, dust.

2) Selling order, others

1. Regard battery history when selling (sell the old ones first)
2. Avoid long term storage
3. Be careful of acid-resistance and strength of shelf. In case battery is not placed on shelf but being piled up, please follow manufacturer’s instruction.
4. Be careful of short-circuit if terminal contains lead wire sticking out on side
5. Prevent liquid freezing in cold weather period.

Safety Precaution of Battery Storage and Selling

Battery is living thing. Let’s charge before selling for the good start.

1) Safety precautions of battery storage and selling

Charging during storage period

Battery gradually performs self-discharge even during storage period. Charging is necessary to recover lost capacity due to self-discharge. Battery charging prior to selling is important in terms of providing good quality product and also quality maintenance.

Supplementary

Causes of Battery Trouble

1. Self-discharge

When battery capacity gradually decrease if it is left unused, this is called “Self-discharge”.

1. Chemical reaction between electrode plates and electrolyte
Electrolyte performs direct reaction to electrode plate and gradually becomes sulfuric acids, mostly occur at (-).

2. Internal electrochemical reaction
If any metal containing lower hydrogen overvoltage than lead exists (e. g antimony). It will adhere to the surface of (-) plate and form local cell then perform self-discharge. In antimonial battery, self-discharge will increase as battery age. Hybrid battery, using antimonial alloy at (+) and calcium alloy at (-), self-discharge slightly occur at the initial stage but later when battery being used antimony will move to (-), this will cause an increasing of self-discharge. Apart from antimony, local battery can occur at the boundary between grid and mimetic material or extraneous objects, shade of electrolyte. Besides, acid radical which is easily oxidized (NO3-, C- etc.) and organic acid will deoxidize (+) active materials.
For instance Fe2+ > + (Deoxidizing) > Fe3+ > - (Oxidizing) > Fe2+ (Repeat) which causes self-discharge.

3. Internal or external electricity operation
Any faulty caused by improper maintenance e. g short-circuit and leakage lead to loss of electricity.

Battery type and self-discharge 
Self-discharge depends on types of battery, approximate self-discharge volume in each cell is shown below.

  • Calcium Type       : 0.1-0.2% of capacity
  • Hybrid Type          : 0.5-0.6% of capacity
  • Antimonial Type   : 0.8-1.0% of capacity

2. Electrolyte freezing and damage

Electrolyte freezing
Significant low temperature are subject to electrolyte freezing, however electrolyte freezing varies with the value of specific gravity. (See graph of correction between specific gravity and of sulfuric acid and freezing on right side) 1.290 point of specific gravity is the most difficult point for electrolyte freezing to occur, however the electrolyte will freeze at approximately minus 750C. When battery is fully charged the specific gravity will be 1.280 (200C) thus freezing will difficultly occur, however if it drops to 1.100 (200C) the electrolyte will freeze at approximately minus 100C. Freezing is harm to battery, it is necessary to fully charge a battery in order to prevent freezing.

Mechanism of how freezing, battery failure occur?
When electrolyte is freezing
Once the electrolyte is freezing the electrode plates will be deteriorated. (Sulfation on negative plate, active material detached from grids.) Even after battery is recovery charged there is a high possibility of early dead battery problem. Thus, even freezing battery does not lead to battery failure, sufficient care is needed anytime freezing battery is being used. To prevent freezing, recharge battery every 2-3 months when the car is left unused for long period in order to avoid effect from parasitic load from electrical loads inside the car.

Battery Measurement

Temperature correction

When specific gravity measured by Hydrometer, the reading needs temperature correction. Specific gravity is dependent to temperature change, when temperature is increasing, specific gravity will be lower. In contrast way, when temperature is decreasing the specific gravity will rise. The reason is electrolyte volume increase when the temperature is high but decrease when temperature is low.

Since the specific gravity of electrolyte is dependent to temperature change, standard temperature set as 200C, to determine precise specific gravity reading, a temperature correction (converting to standard temperature 200C) must be applied.

e. g. 1 when temperature is beyond 200C
  • Specific gravity reading: 1.260
  • Temperature of electrolyte: 400C
  • So, specific gravity reading at 2000C will be 1.274.
e. g. 2 when temperature is lower than 200C
  • Specific gravity reading: 1.280          
  • Temperature of electrolyte: minus 50C
  • So, specific gravity reading at 200C will be 1.274
e. g.1 is summer time case. From specific gravity reading, we can assume that in fact the battery is almost in fully charged state.
e. g. 2 is winter time case. Specific gravity reading shows that the battery is almost fully charged, but in fact of discharge is approximately 90%.


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